: Penek
: Turkey
: The Marchlands, Northeastern Turkey
: 40° 40’ N, 42° 16’ E
: Georgian, Armenian

Penek [Georg: Bana; Arm: Banak] is a massive tetraconch church of Georgian construction (9th – 10th c) with a probable period of Armenian occupation.  The first major phase of construction, which completed the plan of the church with its continuous vaulted ambulatory, may have lasted over a century due to frequent interruptions.  Sometime after the 13th c. substantial damage, due to either earthquake or siege, was crudely repaired.  This site is located in the northeast corner of the Oltu-Penek Valley.


Ref: Marchlands 1, pp. 27-32; Tao, pp. 135-171.


Additional photos are in the reference above.

(Site description written and references compiled by Robert W. Edwards)

: Bana, Banak, Բանակ, ბანა

Site Album Images Description Author Year Cultures
Site Plan(s)
Robert W. Edwards
1977 - 1983
Georgian, Armenian
B&W Photographs
Robert W. Edwards
Georgian, Armenian
Color Transparencies
Robert W. Edwards
Georgian, Armenian