: Bodrum
: Turkey
: Cilicia, South-Central Turkey
: 37° 10’ N, 36° 11’ E
: Armenian

Bodrum [Late antique: Hierapolis (Hieropolis) or Kastabala (Castabala)] is a garrison fortress with two baileys, primarily of Armenian construction, with six rounded towers or salients.  This site is above the late antique city of Kastabala near the eastern edge of the Cilicia Pedias.  It guarded two routes north to Cappadocia, via Amuda, Kadirli, Kum, and Geben, as well as the road leading to Savranda and the Maras-Antioch highway.


Ref: Fortifications, pp. 92-95; Eerdmans, Robert W. Edwards, “Kastabala,” vol. 2, pp. 8-9; Hierapolis, pp. 9-40; Burgen, pp. 137-139; Châteaux, pp. 48-49.


(Site description written and references compiled by Robert W. Edwards)

: Hierapolis, Hieropolis, Kastabala, Castabala, Ἱεράπολις, Καστάβαλα

Site Album Images Description Author Year Cultures
Site Plan(s)
Robert W. Edwards
1973 - 1981
Color Transparencies
Robert W. Edwards